Joseph Haydn - Symphony No. 95 in C minor

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- Composer: Franz Joseph Haydn (31 March 1732 -- 31 May 1809) - Orchestra: Philharmonia Hungarica - Conductor: Antal Doráti - Year of recording: 1972 Symphony No. 95 in C minor, H. 1/95, written in 1791. 00:00 - I. Allegro 07:12 - II. Andante [cantabile] 12:21 - III. Menuetto & Trio 17:31 - IV. Finale. Vivace London concert promoter Johann Peter Salomon was in Cologne when he heard of the death of Nikolaus Esterházy I, in September 1790, and immediately went to Vienna to secure Haydn for his concerts. Several unsuccessful attempts had been made in the 1780s to entice Haydn to visit England. Now freed from thirty years of service to the Esterházy family, the composer was ready. The first of Haydn's two excursions to London began in December of 1790 and was, by all accounts, a great success. He remained in London for two concert seasons, returning to Vienna in July 1792. The composer wrote six new symphonies for the concert series (now numbered 93-98), the first six of the so-called "London" symphonies. Composed in 1791, this symphony was first performed near the end of Salomon's 1791 concert season in London, probably in May or June. There is evidence Haydn initially paired the Symphony No. 95 as with the D major symphony, No. 96. It is unique among the "London" symphonies in its lack of a slow introduction and its minor key. Haydn may have felt the dramatic nature of C minor made a slow introduction unnecessary. It is also his only minor key symphony that includes trumpets and timpani. - The striking opening of the first movement, with its initial fortissimo outburst followed by a dotted-rhythm melody, is suffused with 'Sturm und Drang' tension. A dynamically diverse transition, built on the opening figure, modulates to the relative major (E flat) for the secondary theme, a falling figure in the violins. Both primary and secondary themes appear in the extensive development section, but the forceful figure from the very beginning of the movement takes center stage. In fact, the tune sounds so many times that Haydn elects to omit it from the truncated recapitulation, beginning the section instead with the dotted-rhythm theme. When the second theme makes its entrance it is not on the tonic, C minor, but on C major, the key in which the movement ends. - Marked Andante cantabile (only Andante in Haydn's autograph) and in E flat major, the second movement is almost entirely scored for strings alone. The light-heartedness of the movement turns ominous as the opening theme returns in E flat minor. - While maintaining the traditional formal parameters of the minuet and trio, Haydn greatly expands the form in the third movement, in C minor. The first section of the Menuetto is 22 measures in length, rather than the typical eight or 16. After the first part closes on E flat, the second part begins in this same key with new material and rounds off with the typical restatement of the first section, but returning the harmony to C minor. The contrasting Trio is in C major and features a cello solo throughout. - Haydn closes the symphony on a bright note by setting the Finale in C major. The lively movement draws much of its forward motion from its 2/2 meter and constant eighth note pulse in the accompanimental parts. The rapid chromatic adventures in the middle of the movement anticipate the fortissimo C minor segment near the end.

Published by: olla-vogala
Published at: ۴ years ago
Category: موسیقی